Rushford O.

OLIVER RUSHFORD M.M. (1894 -1918)

 250440 Private Oliver Rushford M.M., 1/6th Battalion, the Durham Light Infantry was killed in action 30 May 1918 and is commemorated on the Soissons Memorial, France.[1]  He was 24 years old and commemorated on the Evenwood and Etherley War Memorials and the Rolls of Honour in St. Paul’s Church, Evenwood and St. Cuthbert’s Church, Etherley.

 Family Details:

 Oliver was born 1894[2] at Escomb the son of John and Annie Rushford.  There were 5 children: [3]

  • Edgar bc, 1887 at West Auckland
  • Edgar bc, 1887 at West Auckland
  • Frank bc.1889 at Escomb
  • Fred bc.1892 at Escomb
  • Oliver born.1894 at Escomb
  • Isabelle bc.1896 at Escomb

In 1901 the family were residents of Wind Mill in the Parish of Evenwood and Barony and Oliver’s father worked as a self-employed butcher (butcher: own account).  Edgar was a butcher’s apprentice.  By 1911, John, Edgar and Oliver worked as butchers and Fred was a hairdresser.  Isabella aged 15 presumably was still at school.  The family lived at Wind Mill, near Morley.  Frank was not at home.[4]

Oliver’s brothers, Edgar and Fred both served in the Army during the war:

  • Private 54/040927 Edgar G. Rushford, Army Service Corps and
  • Gunner 142964 Fred Rushford, Royal Field Artillery

Both survived the war.[5]

 Service Details:

Oliver Rushford enlisted at Bishop Auckland into the local Territorial Force, 6th Battalion Durham Light Infantry being given the regimental number 3803.  At a later date he was allocated the number 250440.[6]  His service records have not been traced.

The 1/6th Battalion was formed in Bishop Auckland in August 1914 as part of the Durham Light Infantry Brigade, Northumbrian Division and in May 1915 were under the orders of the 151st Brigade 50th (Northumbrian) Division. [7] 16 April 1915 the Division moved to France and served with distinction on the Western Front throughout the war.  Other battalions were:

  • 1/7th Battalion, DLI
  • 1/8th Battalion, DLI
  • 1/9th Battalion, DLI
  • 1/5th Battalion, the Loyal North Lancs. joined June 1915

Following heavy casualties in June 1915 the battalion merged with the 1/8th to become the 6/8th then it returned to its original identity 11 August 1915.  The Brigade was joined by:

  • 1/5th (Cumberland) Battalion, the Border Regiment joined December 1915
  • 151st Machine Gun Company formed 6 February 1916
  • 150th Trench Mortar Battery formed 18 June 1916

Other units joined in 1918:

  • 1/5th Battalion, DLI joined February 1918
  • 6th (Service) Battalion, the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers joined July 1918
  • 1st Battalion, the Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, joined July 1918
  • 4th Battalion, the King’s Royal Rifle Corps joined July 1918

Following the German Spring Offensive it was reduced to cadre strength in July 1918 and transferred to Lines of Communication. [8]

250440 Private Oliver Rushford was not awarded the 1914-15 Star therefore he did not enter France before 31 December 1915.  The Division was involved in the following actions at the Battle of the Somme, 1916:

  • 15 – 22 September: The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, 6th phase of the Battle of the Somme 1916
  • 25 – 28 September: The Battle of Morval, 7th phase of the Battle of the Somme 1916
  • 1 – 18 October: The Battle of Le Transloy, 8th  phase of the Battle of the Somme 1916

In 1917, it was involved in the Arras Offensive: 

  • 9 – 14 April 1917: The First Battle of the Scarpe, 1st phase of the Arras Offensive
  • 23 – 24 April 1917:  The Second Battle of the Scarpe, 2nd phase of the Arras Offensive

And the Third Battle of Ypres:

  • 26 October – 10 November 1917: The Second Battle of Passchendeale, 8th phase of the Third Battle of Ypres.

1 – 18 October 1916:  The Battle of Le Transloy

 Private Oliver Rushford had a very distinguished career signified by the award of a Military Medal during operations associated with the Battle of Le Transloy.  This action, part of the Battle of the Somme, commenced 1 October 1916.  The village of Eaucourt L’Abbaye was captured and the attack is notable for the action of Lieutenant-Colonel R.B. Bradford who was awarded the Victoria Cross.  Private Oliver Rushford and others were awarded the Military Medal. [9]   The following extract describes operations:

“By dawn all preparations, including the alteration of watches to winter time, were completed for the attack, which had been ordered for the 1st October.

The preliminary bombardment commenced at 7.00am and continued till zero hour (3.15pm) when it changed to a barrage.  Unfortunately there were some casualties from shells falling short, the total casualties for the day being about 40, including the Commanding Officer wounded.  Lieut.-Col. R. B. Bradford, now commanding the 9th Battalion, asked for and was given permission to take command of the 2 Battalions and for his subsequent work that day was awarded the V. C.  He arrived at Battalion H.Q. at zero and at once went up to the front line.

The attack commenced at 3.15pm but partly on account of the failure of the 47th Division on the right and partly owing to the wire not being properly cut, the attackers were held up by machine gun fire and suffered heavy casualties.  After considerable fighting with bombs and rifles 3 Lewis gun teams of X Company, under 2nd Lieut. T. Little and 2nd Lieut. C.L. Tyerman and one team of W Company under 2nd Lieut. Barnett succeeded in getting a footing in the first objective.  During these operations Lieut.-Col. Bradford arrived on the scene and immediately took charge of the situation and under his direction and leadership the whole of the first objective was gained.  A Company of the 9th Battalion then came up and using the new position as a starting point advanced and took the final objective after dark.

About dusk a counter-attack was attempted by the enemy on the front right.  Advancing in extended order, about 20 of the enemy were challenged and they all cheered, shouting “Hooray”.  As they showed no further friendly signs they were fired on and driven off.  During the night a further counter attack developed from the valley on the right but this was also repulsed.

The following day, by organised bombing, the whole of the final objective was captured and held and communication trenches were dig back to North Durham Street.

The casualties during the 2 days had been very heavy and included amongst the officers, in addition to those already mentioned 2nd Lieut. Peacock killed and 2nd Lieut. Lean, Capt. Peberdy, Lieut. Cotching, 2nd Lieut. Barnett and 2nd Lieut. Appleby wounded.  Amongst the decorations gained were Military Medals awarded to Corporal Dixon and Privates Rushford and Atkinson, all signallers, and Private Turnbull of X Company.  Good work was also done by Sergeants Gowland and Winslow.

On the night of the 2nd October Lieut.-Col. Bradford handed over the command of the Battalion to Lieut. Ebsworth, and it was relieved by the 7th Northumberland Fusiliers the night after.” [10] 

 The Auckland Chronicle reported as follows:

“Lands Bank with less than 100 houses and Wind Mill with only a few scattered houses are 2 wings of the extensive parish of Evenwood and Barony.  The inhabitants are naturally proud of the two heroes who have distinguished themselves for bravery and have been awarded the Military Medal.  Pioneer Herbert Wardle formerly resided at Ramshaw and attended the Old Colliery School.  On removing to Lands Bank with his grandmother he attended the old Morley School.  Corp. Oliver Rushford is a son of Mrs. Rushford and the late Mr. John Rushford.  He also attended the old school at Morley.” [11]

 The following sections will deal with the events of 1918 which surrounded the death of Private O. Rushford and many others serving in the British Army.  The 151st Brigade was heavily involved in action against the German Offensive in the spring of 1918:

  • 21 – 23 March: The Battle of St. Quentin
  • 25 March: The Actions at the Somme Crossing
  • 26 – 27 March: The Battle of Rosieres

The following 2 battles are known as the Battle of the Lys:

  • 9 – 11 April: The Battle of Estaires
  • 12 – 15 April: The Battle of Hazelbrouck

Following a most trying time on the Somme and the Lys battlefields, the Division was withdrawn and sent to IX Corps then on the Aisne, believed to be a much quieter area.  Unfortunately this was not to be the case and the Division was hit hard by another German attack.

  • 27 May – 6 June: The Battle of the Aisne [12]

After suffering particularly heavy casualties while on the Aisne, the Division was substantially reorganised. Other units joined in 1918:

  • 1/5th Battalion, DLI joined February 1918
  • 6th (Service) Battalion, the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers joined July 1918
  • 1st Battalion, the Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, joined July 1918
  • 4th Battalion, the King’s Royal Rifle Corps joined July 1918

Following the German Spring Offensive it was reduced to cadre strength in July 1918 and transferred to Lines of Communication. [13]

 The German Offensive, Spring 1918: an overview

 3 March, Soviet Russia made peace with Germany and her allies by virtue of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.  As a result, Germany could now transfer troops from the Eastern Front to the Western Front.  More importantly, these Divisions included the original elite of the German Army – the Guards, Jagers, Prussians, Swabians and the best of the Bavarians. In all, 192 Divisions could be deployed in the West.  The Allies could field 178 Divisions. [14]  A single division numbered about 19,000 men. [15]  Ludendorff could call upon about 3,650,000 men as opposed to the Allies 3,380,000.  Thus, the Germans now held superiority in numbers.

The German High Command needed victory to be gained before the American Forces arrived in Europe in huge numbers.  America entered the war 6 April 1917 and in the July, Pershing General of the Armies of the United States asked for an army of 3 million men.  The first of her troops arrived in France 26 June 1917.[16] The training and build-up of troops obviously took time but eventually by June 1918, the Americans were receiving about 250,000 men a month in France.  This amounted to 25 divisions in or behind the battle zone and another 55 in the United States ready to join the action.[17]

Elsewhere in the Alliance, the French were able to draw on a new annual class of conscripts after a year of inactivity but the British were worn down by continuous fighting during the summer of 1917 with major offensives at Arras, Messines, Passchendale and Cambrai.[18]  The strength of the British infantry had fallen from 754,000 in July 1917 to 543,000 in June 1918 producing a manpower crisis.[19]

21 March 1918:  the German Offensive was launched.  There were 5 phases: [20]

  • 21 March – 5 April: Operation Michael, against the British, the Battle of Picardy (otherwise known as the First Battle of the Somme 1918)
  • 9 – 11 April: Operation Georgette, against the British, the Battle of Lys sector near Armentieres
  • 27 April: Operation Blucher-Yorck, against the French sector along Chemin des Dames, the Third Battle of Aisne
  • 9 June: Operation Gneisenau, against the French sector between Noyan and Montdider, the Battle of the Matz
  • 15 – 17 July: Operation Marne-Rheims, the final phase known as the Second Battle of the Marne.

The Germans enjoyed spectacular territorial gains particularly during the initial phases of the offensive.  23 March, the Kaiser declared a “victory holiday” for German schoolchildren.

The cost in manpower was enormous:

  • Between 21 March and 10 April the 3 main assaulting armies had lost 303,450 men – 1/5th of their original strength.
  • The April offensive against the British in Flanders was eventually computed to have cost 120,000 men out of a total of 800,000.[21]

The German High Command calculated that it required 200,000 replacements each month but only 300,000 recruits stood available taking into account the next annual class of 18-year olds.  There were 70,000 convalescents available from hospitals each month but even counting them, the strength of the German Army had fallen from 5.1 million to 4.2 million men in the 6 months of the offensive.  It could not be increased on the estimated scale required. [22]

To add to this dilemma, in June 1918, the first outbreak of “Spanish Flu” laid low nearly 500,000 German soldiers.  This epidemic was to reoccur in the autumn and wreak havoc throughout Europe and the wider world.[23]

Added to this the poor diet of the German troops, battle fatigue, discontentment with the military leadership, social unrest at home and a general realisation that their great effort was beginning to wane, the Allies counter attack in mid-July began to seize the initiative.  Sweeping victories over demoralised German forces eventually led to the resignation of Ludendorff 27 October, the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II 9 November and the signing of the Armistice 11 November 1918. [24]

The Third Battle of the Aisne: 27 May – 6 June 1918

The German attack was launched by 4,000 guns across a 40km front against 4 Divisions of the IX Corps.  There was a heavy concentration of British troops in the front line trenches and casualties from this bombardment were severe.  In fact the IX Corps was virtually wiped out.  The bombardment was accompanied by a gas attack after which 17 German infantry divisions advanced through the gaps in the line.  Rapid progress was made and the Germans broke though the reserve troops (8 Allied Divisions – 4 British and 4 French) between Soissons and Rheims.  By the end of the first day, the Germans had passed the Aisne and reached the river Vesle gaining 15km of territory.  3 June, they had come within 90km of Paris and captured 50,000 Allied soldiers and 800 guns.  French casualties were heavy, with 98,000 losses.  The British suffered 29,000 casualties.  6 June, the German advance had run out of steam.[25]

May and June 1918: 6/DLI in action [26]

The first week of April saw the 6/DLI involved in action in what was to become known as the Battle of Lys before it was relieved and sent to join the French troops in the line at Chemin des Dames in the area of Soissons, thought to be a quieter area.  In early May, an epidemic of influenza visited the training camp at Arcis before the battalion marched to billets at Glennes, a small village near Aisne.  The 6th moved up the line to relieve the 73rd French Infantry in the woods east of the Craonne Plateau.  All was quiet until the evening of the 26th May when the message was received that an enemy bombardment was to take place the next morning.

27 May 1.00am: heavy barrage, 3,000 yards flooded with high explosives, shrapnel and gas shells.

4.50am: enemy attack had overwhelmed the forward posts.  X Company wiped out, enemy advancing rapidly, reserve company (Z) close to HQ had the enemy on top of them.  Lieut.-Col. Walton and about 40 men searched for the best place to make a stand, still under a barrage.  5th D.L.I. came up to the communication trench to find it occupied by the enemy.  Battalion practically “annihilated”

Afternoon:  Lieut.-Col. Walton, a few men of the 8th D.L.I. and 5th Northumberland Fusiliers held the bridge at Concevreux.  They were not joined by any men from the front.  For the next 2 days, 2 commanding officers of the 6th and 8th D.L.I. found themselves in command of various men of other battalions.

29 May: the remnants were ordered to move from Villers Argon to Baslieux-sous-Chatillon:

“before reaching the latter place, every available man was again collected to form part of a company under Major Heslop, representing the remnants of the 151st Brigade in a Battalion to which each Brigade of the Division contributed one Company.”

After a night at Quisles Chateau, the battalion moved towards Vile-en-Tardenois to support the 74th Brigade.  The 151st Brigade Company were ordered to act as advance guard and to seize the high ground north and east of Romigny.  This was done but the enemy attacked in force and the Company was driven out to a position south of the village which they held until reinforcements arrived.

“The remnants of the Division, except the Composite Battalion, were assembled at Vert-la-Gravelle, south of the Marne when a Composite Brigade was formed…After a week spent in reorganisation, moved up to Chaumuzy and the Bois de Courton where it did good work in a counter attack on the Bligny Ridge.”

 Private Oliver Rushford was killed in action 30 May 1918.  He has no known grave.  The exact circumstances of his death remain unknown.  Between 27 and 31 May 1918, 6/DLI lost 3 officers and 82 other ranks, 14 other ranks died 30 May including Private Oliver Rushford.  [27]

The War Diary of the 6/DLI for June 1918 provides the following details:

“VERT la FRAVELLE June 1st – Remnants of Battn (about 35 fighting men) inspected by GOC Divn.  About 35 men under Capt. HARE were still in the line and were in action with the French near BOIS de BONVAL.

2nd Composite Bde formed. Lt Col Walton to command 151 Bde Composite Battn.

Capt. HARE’s party moved to BOIS de COURTON.”

6 June the Battalion relieved the 9/Cheshires at Montagne de Bligny.

8 June it moved back to Chaumuzy where it was joined by Capt. Hare’s party.  News came that the 50th Division was to be broken up and early in June the remnants entrained at Sezanne for the Abberville area.  They took billets at Caumont where orders were received that the battalions were to be reduced to the strength of Training Cadres (10 officers and 50 other ranks)

“It may be mentioned that that the total casualties in the battalion during the months of March, April and May had been 60 officers and over 1,200 other ranks.”[28]

The Training Cadres of the 5th, 6th and 8th D.L.I. moved to Dieppe then about the middle of August moved onto Rouen.

Private O. Rushford was awarded the Military Medal,[29] the British War and Victory medals.[30]

Commemorations

 Private Oliver Rushford is commemorated on the Soissons Memorial which commemorates almost 4,000 officers and men of the United Kingdom who died during the Battles of the Aisne and the Marne in 1918 and who have no known grave. [31]

References:

[1] Commonwealth War Graves Commission

[2] England & Wales 1837-1915  Birth Index Vol.10a p.176 Auckland 1894 Q3

[3] 1901 census

[4] 1911 census

[5] Ancestry

[6] Soldiers Died in the Great War

[7] http://www.1914-1918.net/dli.htm

[8] http://www.1914-1918.net50div.htm

[9] London Gazette 9 December 1916

[10] “The Story of the 6th Battalion, The Durham Light Infantry – France April 1915-November 1918” edited by Capt. R.B .Ainsworth MC July 1919

[11] The Auckland Chronicle 2nd November 1916

[12] http://www.warpath.orbat.com/battles_ff/1918_pt1.htm

[13] http://www.1914-1918.net50div.htm

[14] “The Somme” Hart p.421

[15] CWGC

[16] http://www.firstworldwar.net/timeline

[17] Hart p.437

[18] http://www.1914-1918.net/batt22.htm

[19] Hart p.437

[20] Hart p.426 & timeline

[21] Hart p.435

[22] Hart p.439

[23] Hart p.438

[24] timeline

[25] www.firstworldwar.com/battles/aisne3.htm

[26] The Story of the 6th Battalion, The Durham Light Infantry – France April 1915 – November 1918” July 1919 edited by Capt. R.B. Ainsworth MC

[27] Officers & Soldiers Died in the Great War

[28] Ainsworth

[29] London Gazette 9 December 1916

[30] Medal Roll card index

[31] CWGC

Photographs:

RUSHFORD O. Memorial Scroll

RUSHFORD O.
Memorial Scroll

RUSHFORD O. Commemorative Plaque

RUSHFORD O. Commemorative Plaque

 

2 thoughts on “Rushford O.

  1. Pingback: ETHERLEY | The Fallen Servicemen of Southwest County Durham

  2. Pingback: EVENWOOD | The Fallen Servicemen of Southwest County Durham

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